2023 SILENCER SUMMIT SOUND TEST RESULTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
  3. HOSTS
  4. RESULTS
  5. CSV
  6. PHYSICAL SPECS
  7. FAQ
  8. CODE
  9. DOWNLOAD
  10. CONTACT
  11. COPYRIGHT

Introduction

The "2023 SILENCER SUMMIT" was a sound testing event that took place August 8, 9, & 10th, 2023 at TBAC's indoor test facility in Cheyenne, WY.

The purpose of the event was manifold:

(1) to test as many silencers as possible in one place at one time with the exact same setup;
(2) to share sound-testing best practices and train additional people on the PULSE;
(3) to compile a large dataset that included a proposed 2m @ 225-degree mic position (in addition to standard milspec-left and "shooter's ear"), to help analyze the applicability of that mic position for future testing

The event was primarily organized by AAC. TBAC was the host, scientific equipment operator, did the post-analysis, and wrote this report. Representatives from the following companies were present: AAC, AB, Abel, Aero Precision, Allen Engineering, Daniel Defense, Dead Air, Energetic Armament, Griffin Armament, JK Armament, Radical Defense, Resilient, Siege, TBAC, YHM, Allen Arms, Silencer Shop, and Hansohn Brothers. The B&K rep was also present.

Results

Approximately 185 gun/silencer combinations were tested over the three days. The bulk of the testing was on a bolt-action .308 and a Daniel Defense MK18 AR-15 for 5.56, although there were some pistol cans tested on 9mm and some other oddball hosts.

For each test, all shots were recorded on the three microphones and all waveform files were saved. These waveform files were used in post-analysis to determine the following parameters for each mic position: peak pressure (Pa), peak pressure (dB), peak pressure (dBA), Impulse (Pa*ms), Impulse (dB*ms), and Leq(10ms) dBA.

The scope of the reporting contains:
(1) the tables in this HTML document, which are dynamically sortable on all columns;
(2) the "GRAPH" links on the far-right in the tables below have a link to a separate page that contains a plot for each shot, for each mic, for each metric (pressure, impulse, and Leq) for a total of 45 graphs per test run
(3) a .CSV file that can be easily imported into a spreadsheet for your own sorting;
(4) a Dropbox link to an archive file (ie, .tar.gz) of the entire dataset as output by the PULSE. This dataset is approximately 4.5 GB once compressed.

The dataset archive file includes the saved waveform files for every shot in the tables below. This means that if there's some other analysis you want to do to the waveforms, you're welcome to run it and analyze it yourself.

At the bottom of this page is a link to the "process_string.m" Octave function that was used to generate the values in the tables from the waveform files.



Experimental Setup and Procedure

1. Test Setup

a. Equipment 
 i. DAQ: B&K LanXI 3052-A-3/0
    1. Sampling Rate: 262k
 ii. Microphones: B&K 4944-B
 iii. Calibrator: B&K 4231
b. Microphone Locations: see Figure 1.

FIGURE 1. MICROPHONE LOCATIONS

2. Test Location Properties

Data was obtained inside of the TBAC Barn with approximate setup and bullet trap location, see Figure 2.

FIGURE 2. BARN LAYOUT

3. Post Analysis Definitions

a. Peak – The maximum value in the curve, applies to Pa, dB and dBA

b. LEQ – Leq is a "sound energy metric" – Leq defines an equivalent constant sound energy for a fluctuating curve. It is calculated by averaging the SPL (sound pressure level) over the defined time frame and then converting that value to decibels. The LEQ curve becomes a time average sound level. In our case we are using Leq(10ms) dBA so the window for each Leq (dBA) value is a 10msec SPL average.

c. Impulse – Obtained using the Euler method where area under the curve is calculated by multiplying the value and the time interval, applies to Pa*ms and dB*ms

d. Pa-dB conversion – 20*log(Pa/Po) where Po=2e-5 Pa (Pascal equivalent of 1dB)

d. dB vs dBA – In this document, dB is used to refer to unweighted dB. dBA is used to refer to A-weighted dB.

4. Influence of Testing Indoors vs Outdoors

Testing was done indoors and outdoors to verify that peak, impulse, and Leq values representing the gunshots were not affected by the walls, ceiling, and bullet trap. In these plots, and all the plots in this data set, the triggering mic triggers at 50 ms (0.050 seconds), hence they all "start at .05" on the plots.

UNSUPPRESSED GUNSHOTS

FIGURE 3. BARE MUZZLE INDOOR VS. OUTDOOR: PRESSURE

In the instantaneous pressure plot above, the ground reflection can be seen in both the indoor and outdoor plots at approx 0.057 sec. Sound travels at approx 1100 ft/sec. The diagonal distance from the muzzle to the ground and back up to the microphone is 11'. The straight-line distance from the muzzle to the mic is 3.28'. By subtracting the straight-line distance from the diagonal distance and then dividing by the speed of sound, we get (11’-3.28’)/(1100 ft/sec) = 0.007 seconds (7 msec), which is consistent with the time the ground reflection shows up on the graph. The 0.007 seconds is the time it takes for the reflection to get to the triggering mic after the initial blast hits the triggering mic.

The intensity of the ground reflection is affected by the ground composition, i.e., concrete will reflect more energy than sand. In this case the compacted dirt outside reflected more of the pressure wave than the sand floor of the indoor testing.

The reflections from the walls show up just before 0.075 seconds in Figure 3 above. The wall reflections are also clearly visible in the Impulse and Leq figures below (Figures 4 and 5). On the impulse plot, there are oscillations similar to those in the pressure plot above. On the Leq plot, the reflections show up as a higher equivalent sound level (Leq) when they come back to the mic position.

FIGURE 4. BARE MUZZLE INDOOR VS. OUTDOOR: IMPULSE

FIGURE 5. BARE MUZZLE INDOOR VS. OUTDOOR: Leq(10ms) dBA

Note in the Leq plot, the ground reflection on the outdoor plot is a higher intensity than the ground reflection on the inside plot because the composition of the outdoor "ground" is more reflective (compacted dirt vs. sand).

In summary, for unsuppressed shots, from the above data, we can see that a window of approx 0 to 75 msec would be sufficient to accurately capture peak pressure, Impulse, and Leq(10ms) dBA in our barn, other than the varying influence of ground composition.

SUPPRESSED GUNSHOTS

FIGURE 6. SUPPRESSED INDOOR VS. OUTDOOR: PRESSURE

The various reflection events of the indoor and outdoor plots are harder to identify and differentiate when shooting suppressed. The suppressor extends the pressure-release time which causes the ground reflections to be lost in the noise of the event-- in other words, the time it takes for the muzzle report from the suppressor is long enough that the reflections from the ground also reach the mic while the initial pressure release at the muzzle is still happening (in many cases).

For peak pressure, the analysis is still simple: the entire waveform is evaluated in the search for the peak pressure. From the unsuppressed plots we know that the wall reflections occur at approx 75 msec. In Figure 6, the pressure has substantially decayed by this point and it's clear the peak pressure happens sometime before 0.065 sec. Thus, the reflections are coming back to the mic at least 10 msec after the pressure peak occurs. The 338 Ultra was chosen for this demonstration because it should represent a "worst case" in terms of retaining pressure longer (due to its volume and the gas volume and pressure of 338LM).

FIGURE 7. SUPPRESSED INDOOR VS. OUTDOOR: IMPULSE

FIGURE 8. SUPPRESSED INDOOR VS. OUTDOOR: Leq(10ms) dBA

In contrast to the somewhat chaotic looking pressure plots (Figure 6), the wall reflections are still easy to identify in the Impulse and Leq plots. Figures 7 and 8 show that an analysis window can be set to still find the maximum values of Impulse and Leq without those values being affected by wall reflections.

In Figure 7 (IMPULSE), the large negative curve and the second positive curve of the impulse calculation is due to noise in the base waveform being integrated. The analysis window for impulse only needs to be long enough to include the first positive portion and its return to zero (at approx 0.058 sec). Impulse plots used throughout various industries are typically truncated once they cross zero on the way down the first time. To achieve this for the impulse calculation, an initial window was set from 0 - 75 msec. The window was then dynamically adjusted for each waveform by finding the minimum value of impulse from 0 - 75 msec; this is known as the "trough." The end of the impulse analysis window was then adjusted to the trough before the maximum value was found.

For Leq, specifically Leq(10ms) dBA, the data analysis window was set at +0.025 sec after the shot, or 75 msec. This coincides with the time we have already determined that reflections come back. In Figure 9, it is clear that wall reflections start contributing to the Leq value at about 0.080 (80 msec), so we still capture the maximum Leq value of the gunshot with this window.

Also note that the Leq graph from approx 0.055 to 0.070 is higher for the outside plot primarily because of increased ground reflection.

Environmental Factors When Testing Outdoors

Testing indoors does have the advantage of reducing the influence of weather on the test data, primarily wind. Once wind velocities reach 5 mph data obtained outside can be affected. If you think of wading upstream vs downstream the current has a direct affect on how difficult or easy it is to walk. Wind has the same effect on pressure data i.e. wind blowing from the mic to the muzzle will cause the data to be arbitrarily lower and vice versa.

SUMMARY

By analyzing unsuppressed and suppressed gunshot data from indoors and outdoors, we determined that accurately finding peak pressure, Impulse, and Leq(10ms) dBA was possible by windowing the data to avoid the reflections by demonstrating that the peak or maximum value from the gunshot itself (and associated gun noise in the case of semi-autos) always occurred before the reflections returned to the mics.


HOST/CARTRIDGE NOTES

The following tables are broken out by combinations of "suppressor caliber" and "cartridge and host." For example, the first table named ".223 caliber suppressors shooting cartridge: 5.56" are -- unsurprisingly -- all the .223 caliber suppressors shooting 5.56 ammunition from our 5.56 host.

Here is a list of the different cartridge/hosts in this test:

  1. 5.56 - LC M193 55gr 5.56, shot from a DD MK18 (10.3") with an H2 buffer.
  2. 5.56-MK12 - LC M193 55gr 5.56, shot from an 18" MK12 SPR clone
  3. .308 - LC M118LR 175gr, shot from an AI AXSA 20"
  4. .338LM - Hornady 285gr ELD, shot from a 24" MRAD
  5. .45-70FP - Hornady LEVERevolution 325gr FTX, shot from a Marlin 1895 16" bbl
  6. .45-70SUB - Defiant Munitions 400gr TCX-S (Subsonic), shot from a Marlin 1895 16" bbl
  7. 9mm - CCI Blazer Brass 124gr, shot from a Staccato P (factory threaded)
  8. 9mm-MP5K - CCI Blazer Brass 124gr, shot from an HK MP5K/SP5K
  9. 9mmSTTH - Ammo Inc STELTH 165gr, shot from a Staccato P
  10. 9mmSTTH-MP5K - Ammo Inc STELTH 165gr, shot from an HK MP5K/SP5K
  11. 9mm-CZ - CCI Blazer Brass 124gr, shot from an CZ Scorpion
  12. hand - the sound of a hand clap


RESULTS

The following results are grouped so that the tests done on the same host/cartridge are together.
In the column headers, "ML", "SE", and "225" refer to mic positions. ML is milspec-left. SE is "shooter's ear", and 225 is the 2m @ 225 degrees position.

The tables are responsive, so you can click on any column header to sort by that field.

This is best viewed on a wide monitor. You can also zoom out in your browser (usually "Control MINUS").

COLUMN ABBREVIATIONS: "Imp" = Impulse. "Leq" is Leq(10ms). "Pa" is Pressure in Pa. "wt" is weight (oz) as tested. "length" is length (in) as tested. "vol.m" is the volume of the suppressor assuming it is a perfect cylinder, ie, 0.785 * maxdia^2 * length.


.223 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 5.56

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
AACRanger 5.2235.56290.93143.26135.1443.94126.84123.44435.46146.76138.8139.22125.85127.19110.87134.88131.7416.18118.16117.88521.87.0341.512.42GRAPHS
AACRanger 5 Mini.2235.56477.47147.56139.7689.70133.04127.59473.72147.49138.0563.11129.98127.29142.17137.04131.2832.46124.21119.05519.396.3551.511.22GRAPHS
ABA10.2235.56166.38138.40132.7014.03116.92118.07473.04147.48140.2748.23127.65129.0297.74133.78131.2712.06115.60117.71412.017.2571.6214.95GRAPHS
Allen EngineeringAEM5.2235.56289.98143.23134.9027.40122.74122.86492.26147.82139.8749.60127.89128.72126.65136.03132.4916.31118.23118.125218.81.515.54GRAPHS
Bare MuzzleBAREMUZZLE556.2235.566755.40170.57167.33799.93152.04149.323589.30165.08161.50791.73151.95148.741720.67158.69155.01337.80144.55139.49500.0000.0000.0000.00GRAPHS
CGSHelios DT.2235.56513.38148.19141.5671.25131.03127.88517.09148.25139.0666.04130.38127.65147.14137.33132.3827.93122.90119.21510.676.3881.7515.36GRAPHS
Daniel DefenseSoundguard 5.56.2235.56544.29148.70143.70114.39135.15128.46699.58150.88141.9790.61133.12128.28245.18141.77135.1043.20126.69122.21523.897.2151.7517.35GRAPHS
Dead AirSierra 5.2235.56462.26147.28141.5648.18127.64128.65512.90148.18142.1368.62130.71131.43167.19138.44132.0020.67120.29120.35519.976.441.5512.15GRAPHS
Energetic ArmamentARX.2235.56794.37151.98147.09143.03137.09131.44452.32147.09139.4779.19131.95129.82203.36140.14134.8346.54127.34123.0059.145.7751.5410.75GRAPHS
Energetic ArmamentFEROX 5.56.2235.56756.24151.55144.07129.77136.24131.43581.37149.27140.1879.09131.94128.50214.81140.62133.3741.62126.37120.78512.136.0531.61512.39GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentA2S-QD.2235.56415.36146.35139.9067.14130.52126.94458.46147.21138.5149.78127.92127.10144.20137.16130.1624.17121.65118.69522.2171.512.36GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentDL5.2235.56478.77147.58138.5251.41128.20126.37558.56148.92141.1253.66128.57130.46141.45136.99132.1921.82120.76119.43515.166.4851.511.45GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentHRT 5.56.2235.56403.66146.10137.0056.22128.98126.26483.39147.67140.1544.53126.95128.70129.92136.25131.3518.76119.45118.43518.016.1251.5311.26GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentM4SDK.2235.56480.99147.62142.5959.53129.47127.76455.29147.15138.0853.18128.49127.76145.04137.21131.3523.19121.29119.25519.065.0651.5159.13GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentRECCE 5K 556.2235.56463.86147.31141.6093.21133.37127.51454.69147.13138.7771.03131.01127.33161.57138.15131.0534.49124.73119.31516.895.7591.5210.44GRAPHS
HuxwrxFlow 556K.2235.56932.21153.37149.49126.97136.05132.54473.62147.49141.9690.52133.11128.75192.99139.69135.4540.37126.10121.25515.245.751.611.56GRAPHS
JK ArmamentSBRX Full 5.56 stack.2235.56261.74142.34132.5226.28122.37121.62472.96147.48141.9754.70128.74130.24102.13134.16130.9115.72117.91119.18513.226.1651.5511.63GRAPHS
Otter Creek LabsPolonium.2235.56316.80144.00135.4245.14127.07123.45511.10148.15139.7342.21126.49127.48107.01134.57128.9817.17118.68117.35515.786.3651.6112.95GRAPHS
Otter Creek LabsPolonium K.2235.56649.63150.23143.48119.29135.51129.29524.51148.37138.0965.95130.36128.35166.22138.39133.9035.44124.97120.34513.715.321.6110.83GRAPHS
Radical DefenseCS5.2235.56402.75146.08138.8960.61129.63125.49536.06148.56140.1359.07129.41127.32142.81137.07129.8623.34121.34117.95518.035.5571.7813.82GRAPHS
Radical DefenseLS5.2235.56159.35138.03131.6212.23115.73116.38360.48145.12137.5939.87125.99125.6186.59132.73129.6111.67115.32114.72525.27.8051.7518.76GRAPHS
Radical DefenseLS5 Run2.2235.56196.44139.84131.7819.80119.91118.79533.06148.51136.6943.54126.76126.1297.47133.76129.8514.63117.29115.62525.27.8051.7518.76GRAPHS
RuggedRazor 5.2235.56495.74147.88141.86121.75135.69128.68412.15146.28140.2850.99128.13128.37142.14137.03132.4136.46125.22120.35516.456.721.48511.63GRAPHS
SiegeROC 5.56.2235.56465.25147.33141.1761.38129.74126.45440.46146.86138.3349.26127.83126.91132.20136.40132.6823.82121.52118.53417.957.6751.49513.47GRAPHS
SigSLX 5.56.2235.56395.54145.92141.1559.83129.52126.35466.30147.35139.4354.46128.70126.65129.07136.20130.4522.52121.03118.40522.587.6451.6716.74GRAPHS
SilencerCoVelos LBP.2235.56398.04145.98142.9157.63129.19125.81476.98147.55139.2554.89128.77126.16119.25135.51130.1322.33120.96117.12523.137.011.73516.56GRAPHS
SurefireSocom 5.56-rc2.2235.56392.10145.85138.9747.56127.52125.54484.90147.69139.2151.32128.19127.24136.72136.70130.9620.04120.02119.48519.996.4651.511.42GRAPHS
YHMFat Cat.2235.56512.15148.17139.0666.12130.39127.91489.00147.77139.6663.91130.09128.39146.08137.27130.4024.87121.89119.41514.444.5331.9413.39GRAPHS
YHMFat Cat on Phantom.2235.56462.66147.28138.7458.19129.28127.13619.41149.82140.5362.12129.84129.50140.83136.95131.0223.19121.28119.19519.695.571.9416.46GRAPHS
YHMTurbo K-RB.2235.56661.06150.38144.60120.19135.58130.87525.04148.38140.2781.04132.15129.07227.91141.13131.8342.15126.48121.65515.745.961.56511.46GRAPHS
YHMTurbo T3.2235.56537.09148.58139.8576.67131.67128.39502.62148.00138.8858.64129.34128.17163.95138.27131.2428.66123.13119.90517.546.91.56513.27GRAPHS



.223 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 5.56-MK12

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Allen EngineeringAEM5.2235.56-MK12234.16141.37132.8122.18120.90120.42383.35145.65138.2623.60121.44124.33135.32136.61130.6416.62118.39117.935218.81.515.54GRAPHS



.30 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: .308

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
AACJager 30.30.308475.95147.53141.3076.11131.61128.1096.03133.63129.2221.87120.78118.70118.90135.48129.6818.65119.39118.19512.219.2821.4715.75GRAPHS
AACMK13-SD.30.308415.60146.35139.2654.93128.78126.3267.13130.52126.1214.14116.99115.00109.44134.76127.8712.84116.15116.42518.069.511.516.80GRAPHS
AACRanger 7.30.308409.27146.22139.1549.68127.90127.15116.17135.28128.3715.97118.04118.02110.38134.84126.9012.39115.84116.19523.627.9581.49513.96GRAPHS
AACRanger 7 Mini.30.308759.25151.59146.91117.08135.35132.03145.22137.22132.2335.86125.07122.17160.63138.10132.1827.04122.62119.86520.426.6151.511.68GRAPHS
ABRaptor 10.30.308213.72140.58132.7621.47120.62121.4561.51129.76123.144.68107.38113.0973.34131.29123.435.75109.18112.58415.2210.51.62521.77GRAPHS
AbelTheorem.30.308441.83146.88141.2846.60127.35127.1992.90133.34127.7814.23117.04116.5498.20133.82128.3111.57115.25116.89513.587.1621.7517.22GRAPHS
AbelTheorem L.30.308237.69141.50134.3614.60117.27121.4452.71128.42122.234.54107.12112.0157.01129.10121.613.54104.96111.56515.938.791.7521.13GRAPHS
AbelTheorem S.30.308606.05149.63142.1973.88131.35129.39133.35136.48130.0423.02121.22119.82129.69136.24130.1219.77119.90118.90510.565.811.7513.97GRAPHS
AbelTheorem Vented Cap.30.308613.91149.74141.6773.12131.26127.75125.60135.96131.5223.98121.57119.68133.68136.50130.6116.91118.54118.95513.587.1621.7517.22GRAPHS
Aero PrecisionLahar 30.30.308488.21147.75139.1751.10128.15127.97172.40138.71134.1210.98114.79122.58157.71137.94131.1310.66114.54120.02516.746.111.58512.05GRAPHS
Aero PrecisionLahar 30L.30.308348.59144.83135.9327.41122.74124.80104.84134.39130.053.98105.99119.08104.66134.37127.035.07108.07116.64521.037.6351.58515.06GRAPHS
Aero PrecisionLahar-30K.30.308855.48152.62145.71122.47135.74132.99163.76138.26134.6829.08123.25124.19179.78139.07134.7024.53121.77122.50514.115.091.58510.04GRAPHS
Bare MuzzleBAREMUZZLE308.30.3086220.45169.86166.39758.78151.58148.161846.97159.31155.58247.82141.86141.521530.46157.68153.81169.05138.54136.61500.0000.0000.0000.00GRAPHS
CGSHyperion.30.308221.95140.90133.3416.98118.58121.4688.38132.91125.663.71105.37114.5668.63130.71122.784.06106.14112.46515.739.6251.7523.14GRAPHS
CGSHyperion K.30.308540.23148.63142.7168.56130.70129.56160.14138.07131.5622.56121.05120.86141.81137.01129.5717.02118.60118.35510.466.4151.7515.42GRAPHS
Daniel DefenseSoundguard.30.308643.01150.14143.48128.43136.15130.02315.55143.96135.5766.59130.45123.96252.25142.02134.8041.97126.44122.25523.997.2171.74817.31GRAPHS
Daniel DefenseSoundguard Ti.30.308332.65144.42137.3161.58129.77125.01232.57141.31131.8635.10124.88120.16177.14138.95132.4123.68121.47120.47515.027.931.74518.96GRAPHS
Dead AirNomad Keymo.30.308249.93141.94135.1015.99118.06121.9752.76128.43123.934.90107.77112.2162.07129.84123.484.25106.54112.39520.247.751.63316.22GRAPHS
Dead AirNomad LT.30.308166.46138.41133.246.00109.54118.1766.40130.42124.903.67105.27112.4054.18128.66121.841.5597.77109.82518.199.5551.6420.17GRAPHS
Dead AirNomad LT E-Brake .375 endcap.30.308195.42139.80133.857.62111.62117.1981.74132.23124.423.81105.59114.36106.67134.54124.312.63102.37115.25519.7910.7551.6422.71GRAPHS
Dead AirSandman S.30.308495.06147.87141.4569.29130.79129.43107.53134.61130.1220.36120.16118.81122.42135.74129.1416.54118.35118.22520.587.0531.4912.29GRAPHS
Dead AirWolverine Keymo to Short FH.30.308321.03144.11136.3737.29125.41125.6861.08129.70124.738.65112.72114.9483.81132.44126.458.23112.29115.82529.878.651.96526.22GRAPHS
Diligent DefenseEnticer L Ti.30.308227.62141.12132.3813.37116.50120.6755.21128.82124.833.92105.85113.3076.94131.70123.283.00103.52113.29510.938.5551.6117.41GRAPHS
Diligent DefenseEnticer S 7.62.30.308257.67142.20133.6434.07124.63122.23104.25134.34128.098.68112.75118.5187.89132.86126.377.35111.31115.8459.527.1751.61514.69GRAPHS
Energetic ArmamentLUX 7.62.30.308447.50147.00139.4254.28128.67128.5684.57132.52127.5710.62114.50116.65121.88135.70128.559.87113.86117.3959.897.8051.5414.53GRAPHS
Energetic ArmamentPeak 30.30.308458.24147.20140.0763.90130.09128.93113.49135.08129.9920.15120.06119.47108.28134.67129.5216.73118.45118.66511.896.341.5411.80GRAPHS
Energetic ArmamentVox S.30.308569.23149.09142.8273.16131.26130.00116.04135.27130.4722.93121.19119.75130.98136.32130.8518.14119.15119.11512.246.2821.5411.70GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentExplorr 30.30.308586.29149.34140.3690.21133.08129.09137.72136.76130.8027.60122.80119.52130.25136.27129.0121.73120.72118.42514.46.341.511.20GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentHRT 7.62.30.308488.65147.76139.3168.95130.75127.70114.86135.18129.9117.53118.86118.19137.72136.76128.6516.03118.08117.32521.087.71.513.60GRAPHS
Gunwerks6ix.30.308731.74151.27144.07100.17133.99131.52163.37138.24132.2326.74122.52122.12164.65138.31131.3222.31120.95121.01512.556.161.4910.74GRAPHS
Gunwerks8ight.30.308434.00146.73138.5036.29125.18126.1297.48133.76126.259.09113.15116.10112.53135.00127.038.75112.82116.28518.598.191.7419.46GRAPHS
HuxwrxFlow 762 Ti.30.308555.45148.87142.00112.94135.04127.93217.10140.71132.6237.75125.52121.63156.65137.88129.5429.62123.41117.96514.916.91.817.55GRAPHS
HuxwrxHX-QD 7.62.30.308697.80150.85144.40129.27136.21130.03177.54138.97133.6141.62126.37121.86167.64138.47130.9132.47124.21119.28519.47.451.6215.35GRAPHS
JK ArmamentRCX 30 Full.30.308373.44145.42137.4749.88127.94126.0479.93132.03127.2613.78116.76116.7190.71133.13126.7713.36116.49116.47513.248.151.5515.37GRAPHS
JK ArmamentSBRX 30 Full.30.308549.35148.78141.2292.45133.30129.06116.38135.30129.9129.11123.26119.86129.25136.21129.3523.49121.40119.32413.226.1651.5511.63GRAPHS
NoslerSR-30 Ti.30.308390.43145.81138.1843.27126.70126.07101.65134.12128.2912.00115.56118.1179.79132.02126.2510.68114.55116.21513.168.481.7420.15GRAPHS
Otter Creek LabsHydrogen K.30.308589.30149.39143.4490.23133.09130.23123.99135.85131.2827.59122.79120.28131.59136.36131.5420.08120.03119.63513.715.321.6110.83GRAPHS
Otter Creek LabsHydrogen L.30.308163.23138.24131.398.85112.92118.3045.22127.09121.663.25104.21109.8849.13127.81120.561.4897.36108.92513.939.3651.6119.06GRAPHS
Otter Creek LabsHydrogen S 7.62.30.308270.05142.61135.0827.08122.63123.5173.08131.25125.356.52110.26115.1376.12131.61124.436.95110.82113.93511.097.471.6115.20GRAPHS
QThunder Chicken.30.308369.18145.32139.6828.16122.97123.93117.73135.40130.355.01107.97115.6189.48133.01128.516.08109.65114.41516.518.2151.7419.52GRAPHS
QTrash Panda.30.308458.55147.21141.5248.88127.76127.24142.25137.04131.4912.80116.13119.1695.50133.58128.1011.96115.53117.38513.847.041.7416.73GRAPHS
Radical DefenseLS3.30.308272.38142.68134.8114.36117.12121.0967.03130.50123.703.17103.99111.9349.41127.85122.092.94103.35110.70522.718.241.616.56GRAPHS
Radical DefenseSASS.30.308395.92145.93140.4425.75122.19126.81170.87138.63132.498.07112.11118.38103.20134.25128.226.28109.94115.95527.048.5051.7520.45GRAPHS
ResilientJolene.30.308180.17139.09131.8215.41117.73119.5462.52129.90123.503.82105.61112.6555.56128.87121.673.27104.27110.92510.719.0871.6118.49GRAPHS
RuggedMicro 30 Long.30.308668.47150.48144.7292.87133.34131.02119.30135.51131.0733.87124.58121.17145.71137.25132.4927.44122.75121.09518.076.7351.49511.82GRAPHS
RuggedRadiant.30.308456.22147.16139.8062.27129.86127.67104.44134.36129.6918.32119.24119.02108.09134.65129.0415.98118.05117.90515.717.891.5314.50GRAPHS
SiegeStrata 7.62.30.308619.21149.82144.5395.83133.61130.24167.56138.46133.4123.53121.41121.93141.08136.97130.3321.60120.67118.78517.587.681.49513.47GRAPHS
SigSLH 7.62.30.308548.11148.76142.2060.00129.54127.45148.85137.43130.4213.49116.58120.1999.56133.94127.5712.52115.93117.26524.757.8271.6717.14GRAPHS
SigSLX 7.62.30.308580.43149.25144.2777.51131.77129.85175.32138.86135.9022.06120.85124.51177.60138.97133.9517.35118.76122.31522.567.741.6716.95GRAPHS
SilencerCoOmega 30 Anchor.30.308299.15143.50138.7056.50129.02123.39264.03142.41134.5652.45128.37121.39131.16136.34130.6026.36122.40118.64519.3481.56515.38GRAPHS
SilencerCoOmega 300 flat cap.30.308388.73145.77139.6645.80127.20125.9077.75131.79125.9213.48116.58115.9285.48132.62126.9612.91116.20116.05519.277.11.56513.65GRAPHS
SurefireSocom 7.62-rc2.30.308607.69149.65143.5665.17130.26128.27120.65135.61132.0216.25118.20120.98132.17136.40131.7113.33116.47119.24523.768.431.514.89GRAPHS
TBACDominus CB.30.308364.36145.21138.7741.56126.35127.5554.11128.64125.606.89110.75115.7089.10132.98126.918.43112.50117.02511.856.271.815.95GRAPHS
TBACMagnus CB.30.308177.02138.94132.179.00113.06117.9570.49130.94123.913.08103.76110.3048.19127.64120.111.3696.66109.30516.7691.822.89GRAPHS
TBACUltra 5.30.308687.92150.73144.60135.91136.64132.31180.24139.10133.4741.60126.36123.48179.80139.08132.7633.36124.45121.5658.035.0151.458.28GRAPHS
TBACUltra 7.30.308435.27146.75139.3353.21128.50127.7790.28133.09129.1014.28117.08117.74103.90134.31128.5512.38115.83116.91510.067.011.4511.57GRAPHS
TBACUltra 9.30.308239.84141.58133.0619.06119.58122.2776.99131.71125.284.42106.88114.8273.15131.26123.414.91107.80112.70511.969.011.4514.87GRAPHS
YHMResonator K.30.3081308.11156.31151.12159.76138.05136.32262.86142.37136.2638.24125.63125.73218.91140.78134.8532.06124.10123.31516.16.1821.56511.89GRAPHS
YHMResonator R2.30.308314.06143.92136.2323.54121.42124.4899.59133.94127.885.86109.34117.1196.97133.71125.715.51108.80115.37519.868.281.56515.92GRAPHS
YHMResonator R2 Phantom.30.308300.71143.54135.8724.83121.88124.9284.16132.48125.376.02109.57115.0990.72133.13125.865.65109.01115.84525.119.321.56517.92GRAPHS



.30 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 5.56

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
AACRanger 7.305.56436.35146.78139.2460.64129.63126.36404.98146.13135.6646.43127.31125.40141.34136.98133.8224.24121.67118.88523.627.9581.49513.96GRAPHS
AACRanger 7 Mini.305.561038.00154.30149.95165.25138.34133.45465.51147.34140.3994.61133.50128.69238.81141.54135.5755.51128.87122.67520.426.6151.511.68GRAPHS
AbelTheorem 30 30 endcap.305.56551.35148.81142.8551.06128.14127.72458.51147.21138.8757.57129.18128.73139.53136.87131.7322.73121.11119.37513.587.1621.7517.22GRAPHS
AbelTheorem L 30 endcap.305.56266.77142.50134.5520.51120.22121.41377.31145.51138.4139.08125.82127.73127.37136.08133.0114.83117.40117.97515.938.791.7521.13GRAPHS
AbelTheorem S.305.56652.99150.28144.35114.26135.14129.89388.65145.77138.6259.44129.46128.15174.56138.82132.9540.65126.16121.49510.565.811.7513.97GRAPHS
Aero PrecisionLahar 30.305.56399.07146.00138.4145.49127.14126.23426.85146.58138.6442.06126.46127.93136.06136.65129.3514.96117.48119.49516.746.111.58512.05GRAPHS
Aero PrecisionLahar 30L.305.56287.80143.16134.7723.09121.25123.11448.24147.01138.5039.65125.94128.27125.78135.97132.1511.38115.11119.12521.037.6351.58515.06GRAPHS
Aero PrecisionLahar-30K.305.561007.15154.04150.71216.73140.70133.83477.06147.55141.0695.84133.61129.36230.06141.22135.7760.15129.56123.27514.115.091.58510.04GRAPHS
CGSHyperion.305.56204.22140.18131.7719.16119.63119.87356.66145.02137.9238.20125.62126.2388.28132.90130.2811.89115.48116.53515.739.6251.7523.14GRAPHS
CGSHyperion K.305.56711.05151.02144.8382.04132.26129.61466.98147.37138.3360.38129.60126.60154.58137.76131.1829.39123.34119.31510.466.4151.7515.42GRAPHS
Dead AirNomad Keymo.305.56296.00143.41136.1720.36120.16122.14417.83146.40140.8148.43127.68128.13110.76134.87130.5414.55117.24117.39520.247.751.63316.22GRAPHS
Dead AirNomad LT.305.56160.65138.10132.818.83112.90117.42448.14147.01138.7744.87127.02127.82111.12134.90132.4012.59115.98116.94518.199.5551.6420.17GRAPHS
Dead AirSandman S.305.56559.34148.93140.16102.40134.19129.34490.85147.80138.8457.96129.24128.13154.75137.77133.2631.65123.99120.76520.587.0531.4912.29GRAPHS
Dead AirWolverine Keymo.305.56324.81144.21138.6342.12126.47125.79377.40145.52139.7441.92126.43128.43111.79134.95130.0916.12118.13119.01529.878.651.96526.22GRAPHS
Diligent DefenseEnticer.305.56327.16144.27134.3533.36124.44123.32427.95146.61138.0142.33126.51128.27112.10134.97131.2013.52116.60118.7459.527.1751.61514.69GRAPHS
Diligent DefenseEnticer L Ti.305.56200.31140.01130.2714.89117.44119.44482.48147.65139.3153.10128.48129.45101.11134.08131.2312.40115.85117.93510.938.5551.6117.41GRAPHS
Energetic ArmamentLUX 7.62.305.56372.19145.39138.5540.21126.07125.62462.83147.29139.0745.29127.10128.77131.00136.32130.7515.20117.62119.0059.897.8051.5414.53GRAPHS
Energetic ArmamentPeak 30.305.56449.09147.03140.5768.50130.69128.08467.56147.38138.6143.86126.82127.98146.72137.31131.6023.94121.56119.72511.896.341.5411.80GRAPHS
Energetic ArmamentVox S.305.56459.30147.22141.1969.88130.87128.54418.09146.40138.9144.38126.92127.49154.96137.78132.7925.44122.09120.41512.246.2821.5411.70GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentExplorr 30.305.56537.64148.59141.27102.32134.18128.70424.26146.53137.2450.74128.09126.31152.79137.66133.8131.24123.87119.99514.46.341.511.20GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentHRT 7.62.305.56450.50147.05138.5170.13130.90126.48417.32146.39136.4340.92126.22126.70113.59135.09130.0319.74119.89118.74521.087.71.513.60GRAPHS
HuxwrxFlow 7.62 Ti.305.56698.01150.86146.4393.47133.39128.73480.29147.61138.3467.71130.59125.92157.70137.94132.4234.71124.79118.81514.916.91.817.55GRAPHS
JK ArmamentRCX 30 Full 5.56 endcap.305.56260.55142.30135.5246.91127.40123.31417.20146.39140.3339.07125.82128.88121.74135.69133.1118.70119.42118.97513.248.151.5515.37GRAPHS
JK ArmamentSBRX 30 Full 5.56 endcap.305.56451.82147.08138.7981.40132.19126.29474.57147.51137.4151.21128.17128.05138.00136.78130.3828.43123.06119.28513.226.1651.5511.63GRAPHS
JK ArmamentSBRX Full 30 endcap.305.56467.36147.37140.1299.11133.90128.08385.73145.71138.0650.00127.96126.52168.93138.53133.2833.35124.44120.66513.226.1651.5511.63GRAPHS
Otter Creek LabsHydrogen K.305.56645.47150.18144.36115.82135.26130.09489.86147.78138.2162.06129.84128.06149.66137.48133.0630.45123.65120.87513.715.321.6110.83GRAPHS
Otter Creek LabsHydrogen L.305.56125.90135.98128.089.09113.15116.89467.28147.37138.6146.15127.26128.4097.87133.79131.9912.05115.60117.27513.939.3651.6119.06GRAPHS
Otter Creek LabsHydrogen S.305.56260.10142.28134.5527.99122.92122.41483.63147.67138.8045.50127.14128.3696.46133.67130.1112.00115.56117.60511.097.471.6115.20GRAPHS
ResilientJolene.305.56156.01137.84129.4015.11117.56117.88389.71145.79136.6239.19125.84126.38103.30134.26131.5711.09114.88116.62510.719.0871.6118.49GRAPHS
SiegeStrata 7.62.305.56697.81150.85146.29108.26134.67130.52489.16147.77138.0463.13129.98127.21176.53138.92133.1234.19124.66120.27517.587.681.49513.47GRAPHS
SigSLH 7.62.305.56734.92151.30145.5582.85132.35130.45448.44147.01141.3760.78129.65127.84172.34138.71133.6423.71121.48120.40524.757.8271.6717.14GRAPHS
SigSLX 7.62.305.56799.12152.03148.7688.62132.93131.35437.94146.81141.2858.00129.25128.42181.98139.18136.1129.23123.30122.43522.567.741.6716.95GRAPHS
SilencerCoOmega 300 Anchor Brake.305.56278.99142.89136.0764.07130.11123.76473.27147.48139.0065.01130.24127.60155.30137.80131.9028.44123.06119.23519.3481.56515.38GRAPHS
SilencerCoOmega 300 flat cap.305.56386.39145.72137.4352.39128.36125.25428.13146.61137.3643.07126.66127.18101.57134.11131.3117.39118.78118.41519.277.11.56513.65GRAPHS
SurefireSocom 7.62 RC2.305.56562.43148.98145.9969.22130.78128.44516.08148.23141.5977.47131.76127.88144.61137.18132.8225.26122.03120.81523.768.431.514.89GRAPHS
TBACDominus CB.305.56341.49144.65136.2538.88125.77126.10474.66147.51140.1243.14126.68128.07106.87134.56131.1713.37116.50118.63511.856.271.815.95GRAPHS
TBACDominus K SR.305.56995.71153.94148.62172.44138.71133.73577.17149.21141.20115.69135.25129.65236.80141.47135.7260.53129.62123.20515.285.4651.813.90GRAPHS
TBACMagnus CB.305.56131.96136.39129.339.15113.21116.46470.89147.44138.1340.71126.17127.7698.37133.84130.6911.88115.47116.50516.7691.822.89GRAPHS
TBACUltra 5.305.56664.87150.43142.65121.45135.67130.74442.51146.90139.1065.91130.36127.57165.33138.35133.3635.41124.96121.1458.035.0151.458.28GRAPHS
TBACUltra 7.305.56335.02144.48137.0444.24126.89125.38369.04145.32139.2840.46126.12128.42118.20135.43131.6316.33118.24119.13510.067.011.4511.57GRAPHS
TBACUltra 9.305.56203.46140.15133.1618.21119.19120.70391.74145.84139.0341.81126.40127.88110.82134.87132.3212.55115.95117.57511.969.011.4514.87GRAPHS
YHMResonator R2.305.56314.42143.93136.5826.72122.52123.89517.33148.25138.9142.44126.53128.75108.91134.72131.3013.01116.26118.16519.868.281.56515.92GRAPHS



.30 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 5.56-MK12

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Allen EngineeringAEM5 .30.305.56-MK12262.57142.36135.4924.87121.89122.09349.75144.85136.8423.29121.32122.60137.96136.77131.6017.39118.79117.915218.81.515.54GRAPHS



.33 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: .338LM

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
AACTitan QD.33.338LM652.91150.28145.4574.89131.47131.52106.72134.54131.2219.12119.61119.93137.31136.73132.0520.84120.36120.74522.4101.8526.87GRAPHS
CGSHekate.33.338LM367.45145.28137.3735.56125.00126.7570.74130.97128.246.30109.96116.92113.15135.05127.677.40111.37117.11518.0510.851.7526.08GRAPHS
TBAC338 Ultra.33.338LM284.74143.07134.9718.09119.13124.6263.72130.07128.125.95109.47115.8576.90131.70125.073.86105.71114.81521.310.41.826.45GRAPHS



.375 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 9mm-MP5K

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
TBACMagnus 375.3759mm-MP5K51.82128.27122.886.29109.95109.37341.11144.64137.9022.18120.90123.3749.80127.92122.864.38106.81110.22518.49.51.824.16GRAPHS



.375 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 9mmSTTH

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
TBACMagnus 375.3759mmSTTH52.54128.39124.161.9899.92109.04121.32135.66132.594.48107.01118.2933.75124.54121.841.2095.58106.81518.49.51.824.16GRAPHS



.375 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 9mmSTTH-MP5K

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
TBACMagnus 375.3759mmSTTH-MP5K27.61122.80118.494.71107.44107.11220.12140.83135.0614.85117.41121.2438.25125.63121.202.93103.31108.23518.49.51.824.16GRAPHS



.45 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: .308

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Dead AirPrimal Keymo.45.308526.83148.41141.9046.53127.33129.46104.22134.34130.4312.02115.58119.73132.84136.45130.0610.73114.60119.53524.088.811.6218.15GRAPHS
SilencerCoHybrid 46.45.308610.04149.69142.3278.93131.92131.00144.67137.19130.9825.59122.14121.44146.99137.33131.1622.21120.91120.65517.427.951.5815.58GRAPHS
TBACFly 45 Long.45.308498.99147.94140.4767.73130.60129.04113.72135.10130.3517.66118.92120.03138.74136.82130.6914.98117.49119.9758.958.361.4413.61GRAPHS



.45 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: .45-70FP

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Dead AirPrimal.45.45-70FP853.72152.61148.00104.15134.33134.74257.84142.21137.8330.87123.77124.99196.27139.84135.2823.44121.38123.65516.67.91.6216.28GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentBushwacker 46.45.45-70FP1006.51154.04149.61193.31139.70135.18226.62141.09136.4966.77130.47126.35185.18139.33134.2043.63126.77123.375167.881.513.92GRAPHS
SilencerCoHybrid 46.45.45-70FP859.09152.66145.51131.43136.35134.21225.61141.05137.8148.39127.67125.80187.90139.46134.5538.20125.62123.89517.427.951.5815.58GRAPHS
TBACFly 45 Long.45.45-70FP632.37150.00144.25132.17136.40133.01186.32139.38135.8239.20125.85124.96170.22138.60134.4530.74123.73122.8058.958.361.4413.61GRAPHS



.45 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: .45-70SUB

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Dead AirPrimal.45.45-70SUB226.22141.07134.7114.12116.97120.5289.73133.04130.134.10106.24116.4860.76129.65121.793.07103.73110.76516.67.91.6216.28GRAPHS
Griffin ArmamentBushwacker 46.45.45-70SUB188.09139.47131.1520.78120.33118.0997.89133.79129.013.80105.58116.8060.07129.55122.443.59105.09110.515167.881.513.92GRAPHS
SilencerCoHybrid 46.45.45-70SUB239.74141.57131.9513.70116.71119.95141.85137.02129.793.84105.66117.9494.77133.51125.464.29106.63112.71517.427.951.5815.58GRAPHS
TBACFly 45 Long.45.45-70SUB184.62139.30130.3213.97116.89118.31110.23134.83128.802.70102.60116.8076.07131.60123.283.11103.83111.1258.958.361.4413.61GRAPHS



.45 CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 5.56

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Dead AirPrimal Keymo.455.56810.57152.16148.6459.96129.54130.99472.08147.46139.0357.59129.19127.94175.69138.87133.0522.90121.18120.70524.088.811.6218.15GRAPHS
SilencerCoHybrid 46.455.56603.46149.59143.3587.23132.79130.17516.38148.24138.8556.09128.96127.55146.81137.31133.2327.17122.66121.03517.427.951.5815.58GRAPHS



6.5mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 5.56

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Allen EngineeringAEM46.5mm5.56460.60147.25142.0248.16127.63126.08505.57148.06138.5354.57128.72127.51123.54135.82131.6720.73120.31118.345208.41.514.84GRAPHS



6mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 5.56

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
AbelTheorem 30 6mm endcap6mm5.56355.03144.98138.5533.55124.49123.79424.95146.55138.7747.10127.44128.71120.98135.63132.6517.70118.94118.70513.587.1621.7517.22GRAPHS
AbelTheorem L 6mm endcap6mm5.56157.76137.94130.2214.44117.17118.18343.60144.70138.0239.00125.80127.77100.01133.98131.4213.24116.42117.53515.938.791.7521.13GRAPHS
AbelTheorem S6mm5.56432.40146.70139.3160.40129.60126.23382.36145.63138.3248.56127.70127.83133.68136.50133.1325.27122.03119.97510.565.811.7513.97GRAPHS



9mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: .308

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
SilencerCo36M Long9mm.308378.12145.53138.9540.80126.19126.5078.20131.84125.4010.71114.58115.3998.44133.84127.368.60112.67116.22520.087.8851.57515.35GRAPHS
YHMR99mm.308657.94150.34142.4176.32131.63130.61150.38137.52131.2719.66119.85120.52123.60135.82130.0217.68118.93119.40510.785.4771.56510.53GRAPHS



9mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 5.56

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
SilencerCo36M Long9mm5.56327.60144.29135.7840.40126.11124.24426.43146.58137.9742.09126.46127.60108.06134.65130.3214.50117.21118.14520.087.8851.57515.35GRAPHS
Yankee HillR9 Phantom QD9mm5.56538.01148.60142.8078.41131.87129.74396.97145.95139.0953.95128.62127.64160.54138.09132.1626.18122.34120.26516.036.5151.56512.53GRAPHS



9mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 9mm

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
RuggedObsidian 9 Full9mm9mm152.01137.62129.2910.01113.99114.58175.25138.85137.219.18113.24123.8462.94129.96125.753.05103.66112.24513.337.831.37511.62GRAPHS
SilencerCoOmega 9K9mm9mm235.99141.44134.4516.21118.18117.71176.39138.91132.238.03112.07119.4153.70128.58121.844.06106.15109.7958.5151.488.60GRAPHS
TBACFly 9 long9mm9mm101.95134.15126.815.44108.69114.39176.89138.93137.387.30111.25125.1449.17127.81126.062.79102.89113.9257.971.3910.62GRAPHS



9mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 9mm-CZ

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Dead AirMojave 9 Full Keymo9mm9mm-CZ104.46134.36126.255.88109.37112.09719.86151.12146.9824.96121.92129.15165.94138.38132.954.95107.87116.03510.017.71.37511.43GRAPHS



9mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 9mm-MP5K

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Dead AirMojave 9 Full Keymo9mm9mm-MP5K97.41133.75126.336.35110.04110.42311.86143.86138.7315.84117.98123.3750.55128.05123.423.32104.40109.72510.017.71.37511.43GRAPHS
ResilientRS99mm9mm-MP5K122.72135.76126.2211.85115.46114.04266.99142.51137.1022.00120.83122.6664.05130.11123.904.89107.77111.11513.887.011.715.90GRAPHS
RuggedObsidian 9 Full9mm9mm-MP5K206.52140.28135.3617.94119.06117.26297.33143.44138.2419.16119.63122.4056.97129.09124.004.69107.40110.67513.337.831.37511.62GRAPHS
SilencerCoOmega 9K9mm9mm-MP5K330.31144.36138.1330.61123.70122.19314.46143.93137.6019.39119.73123.4164.10130.12124.377.94111.97112.8858.5151.488.60GRAPHS
TBACFly 9 Long9mm9mm-MP5K110.78134.87125.4111.11114.90112.49237.14141.48137.1421.58120.66122.3758.51129.32124.055.58108.92110.5858.536.781.3910.28GRAPHS
YHMR99mm9mm-MP5K174.47138.81130.3115.58117.83116.23311.15143.84138.7027.21122.67123.8056.81129.07123.826.54110.30110.69510.785.4771.56510.53GRAPHS
YHMR9 Phantom9mm9mm-MP5K100.39134.01127.3410.11114.08113.37269.60142.59137.8624.00121.58122.4853.33128.52124.066.00109.54110.88516.036.5151.56512.53GRAPHS



9mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 9mmSTTH

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
RuggedObsidian 9 Full9mm9mmSTTH64.59130.18122.555.70109.10109.1390.87133.15129.374.07106.18113.9932.87124.32119.791.1595.21104.04513.337.831.37511.62GRAPHS
SilencerCoOmega 9k9mm9mmSTTH105.40134.44127.866.21109.84111.69107.17134.58129.044.20106.44114.1546.29127.29119.361.5397.67104.3458.5151.488.60GRAPHS
TBACFly 9 Long9mm9mmSTTH48.20127.64121.873.64105.20108.5190.89133.15130.614.06106.15116.1134.54124.75121.200.8892.90105.9757.971.3910.62GRAPHS



9mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 9mmSTTH-CZ

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Dead AirMojave 9 Full Keymo9mm9mmSTTH-CZ57.77129.21120.264.19106.41108.16247.84141.86138.2910.53114.43123.2154.61128.72123.672.27101.08110.41510.017.71.37511.43GRAPHS



9mm CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: 9mmSTTH-MP5K

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
Dead AirMojave 9 Full Keymo9mm9mmSTTH-MP5K43.89126.83120.343.67105.27107.38196.94139.87134.1510.01113.99118.3328.95123.21119.522.18100.73105.65510.017.71.37511.43GRAPHS
ResilientRS99mm9mmSTTH-MP5K85.57132.63125.227.06110.96111.16228.42141.15135.3614.31117.09119.7447.42127.50120.923.29104.33106.98513.887.011.715.90GRAPHS
RuggedObsidian 9 Full9mm9mmSTTH-MP5K138.60136.81130.639.73113.74112.76201.23140.05134.9912.43115.87119.3640.92126.22120.533.15103.94107.17513.337.831.37511.62GRAPHS
SilencerCoOmega 9k9mm9mmSTTH-MP5K302.94143.61136.9228.09122.95121.25245.06141.76137.6920.91120.39123.2466.85130.48123.707.66111.67112.2159.194.831.4758.25GRAPHS
TBACFly 9 Long9mm9mmSTTH-MP5K73.56131.31123.106.85110.69109.90250.87141.97135.5716.24118.19119.8841.42126.32120.543.76105.47107.6258.536.781.3910.28GRAPHS
YHMR99mm9mmSTTH-MP5K127.94136.12127.569.13113.19112.16241.33141.63135.2416.01118.07120.8044.38126.92121.363.74105.45108.53510.785.4771.56510.53GRAPHS
YHMR9 Phantom9mm9mmSTTH-MP5K55.02128.79121.115.72109.13108.16248.86141.90135.2216.48118.32119.7036.90125.32120.473.98105.97107.33516.036.5151.56512.53GRAPHS



hand CALIBER SUPPRESSORS SHOOTING CARTRIDGE/HOST: hand

MFGRSUPPRESSORCALCARTML PaML dBML dBAML Imp Pa*msML Imp dB*msML Leq dBASE PaSE dBSE dBASE Imp Pa*msSE Imp dB*msSE Leq dBA225 Pa225 dB225 dBA225 Imp Pa*ms225 Imp dB*ms225 Leq dBAshotswtlenmaxdiavol.mGRAPHS
TBACKurtis Claphandhand16.74118.45115.360.6490.16100.5211.14114.92114.830.1979.5798.788.93113.00112.270.2581.7694.96528007200.000.00GRAPHS


PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF SUPPRESSORS AS TESTED

MFGRSUPPRESSORWEIGHT (oz)OAL (in)Max Dia. (in)Notes
AAC JAEGER 30 12.21 9.282 1.47
AAC MK-13SD 18.06 9.51 1.5
AAC RANGER 5 21.8 7.034 1.5
AAC RANGER 5 MINI 19.39 6.355 1.5
AAC RANGER 7 23.62 7.958 1.495
AAC RANGER 7 MINI 20.42 6.615 1.5
AAC Titan QD 22.4 10 1.85
ABEL COMPANY THEOREM 13.58 7.162 1.75
ABEL COMPANY THEOREM-L 30 15.93 8.79 1.75
ABEL COMPANY THEOREM-S 30 10.56 5.81 1.75
AB SUPPRESSORS A10 12.01 7.257 1.62
AB SUPPRESSORS RAPTOR 15.22 10.5 1.625 FULL LENGTH
AB SUPPRESSORS RAPTOR 15.22 7.5 1.625 FORWARD OF MOUNT
AERO LAHAR-30 16.74 6.11 1.585
AERO LAHAR-30K 14.11 5.09 1.585
AERO LAHAR-30L 21.03 7.635 1.585
Allen Engineering AEM4 20 8.4 1.5
Allen Engineering AEM5 21 8.8 1.5
Allen Engineering AEM5 .30 21 8.8 1.5
CGS Hekate 18.05 10.85 1.75
CGS HELIOS DT 10.67 6.388 1.75
CGS HYPERION 15.73 9.625 1.75
CGS HYPERION K 10.46 6.415 1.75
DANIEL DEFENSE SOUNDGUARD 30 23.99 7.217 1.748
DANIEL DEFENSE SOUNDGUARD 30 TI 15.02 7.93 1.745
DANIEL DEFENSE SOUNDGUARD 556 23.89 7.215 1.75
DEAD AIR MOJAVE 9 W/KEYMICRO 10.01 7.7 1.375
DEAD AIR NOMAD 30 W/KEYMO 20.24 7.75 1.633
Dead Air Nomad LT E-Brake .375 endcap 19.79 10.755 1.64
DEAD AIR NOMAD LT W/KEYMO 18.19 9.555 1.64
Dead Air Primal 16.6 7.9 1.62
Dead Air Primal w/Keymo 24.08 8.81 1.62
DEAD AIR SANDMAN S W/KEYMO 20.58 7.053 1.49
DEAD AIR SIERRA 5 W/KEYMO 19.97 6.44 1.55
DEAD AIR WOLVERINE W/KEYMO 29.87 8.65 1.965
DILLIGENT ENTICER L TI 10.93 8.555 1.61
DILLIGENT ENTICER S TI 9.52 7.175 1.615
ENERGETIC ARMAMENT ARX 9.14 5.775 1.54
ENERGETIC ARMAMENT FEROX 556 12.13 6.053 1.615
ENERGETIC ARMAMENT LUX 762 9.89 7.805 1.54
ENERGETIC ARMAMENT LUX 762 9.89 7.805 1.54
ENERGETIC ARMAMENT PEAK 30 11.89 6.34 1.54
ENERGETIC ARMAMENT VOX S 12.24 6.282 1.54
GRIFFIN A25-QD 22.21 7 1.5
Griffin Armament Bushwacker 46 16 7.88 1.5
GRIFFIN DUAL-LOK 556 15.16 6.485 1.5
GRIFFIN EXPLORR 14.4 6.34 1.5
GRIFFIN HRT 556 18.01 6.125 1.53
GRIFFIN HRT 762 21.08 7.7 1.5
GRIFFIN M4SDK 19.06 5.065 1.515
GRIFFIN RECCE 5K 16.89 5.759 1.52
GUNWERKS 6IX 12.55 6.16 1.49
GUNWERKS 8IGHT 18.59 8.19 1.74
HUXWRX FLOW 556K 15.24 5.75 1.6
HUXWRX FLOW 762TI 14.91 6.9 1.8
Huxwrx HX-QD 7.62 19.4 7.45 1.62
JK ARMAMENT 155 RCX 13.24 8.15 1.55
JK ARMAMENT 155 SBRX 30 13.22 6.165 1.55
NOSLER SR-30TI 13.16 8.48 1.74
OTTER CREEK LAB HYDROGEN L 13.93 9.365 1.61
OTTER CREEK LAB HYDROGEN S 11.09 7.47 1.61
OTTER CREEK LAB POLONIUM 15.78 6.365 1.61
OTTER CREEK LAB POLONIUM K 13.71 5.32 1.61
Q THUNDER CHICKEN 16.51 8.215 1.74
Q TRASH PANDA 13.84 7.04 1.74
RADICAL CS-5 18.03 5.557 1.78
RADICAL LS3 22.71 8.24 1.6
RADICAL LS5 25.2 7.805 1.75
RADICAL SASS 27.04 8.505 1.75
RESILIENT JOLENE 10.71 9.087 1.61
RESILIENT RS9 13.88 7.01 1.7
RUGGED SUPPRESSORS MICRO 30 18.07 6.735 1.495
RUGGED SUPPRESSORS OBSIDIAN 9 13.33 7.83 1.375
RUGGED SUPPRESSORS RADIANT 762 15.71 7.89 1.53
RUGGED SUPPRESSORS RAZOR 556 16.45 6.72 1.485
SIEGE ROC 556 17.95 7.675 1.495
SIEGE STRATA 762 17.58 7.68 1.495
SIG SLH 762 24.75 7.827 1.67
SIG SLX 556 22.58 7.645 1.67
SIG SLX 762 22.56 7.74 1.67
SilencerCo Hybrid 46 17.42 7.95 1.58
SILENCER CO OMEGA300 19.27 7.1 1.565
SILENCER CO OMEGA300 W/ANCHOR BRAKE 19.34 8 1.565
SILENCER CO OMEGA 36M 20.08 7.885 1.575
SilencerCo Omega 9K 8.51 5 1.48
SILENCER CO OMEGA 9K W/3-LUG 9.19 4.83 1.475
SILENCER CO VELOS LBP 23.13 7.01 1.735
SUREFIRE SOCOM556-RC2 19.99 6.465 1.5
SUREFIRE SOCOM762-RC2 23.76 8.43 1.5
TBAC Kurtis 2800 72
THUNDERBEAST 338 Ultra 21.3 10.4 1.8
THUNDERBEAST DOMINUS-CB 11.85 6.27 1.8
THUNDERBEAST DOMINUS K-SR 15.28 5.465 1.8
THUNDERBEAST FLY 45 8.95 8.36 1.44
THUNDERBEAST FLY 9 7.9 7 1.39
THUNDERBEAST FLY 9 W/3-LUG 8.53 6.78 1.39
THUNDERBEAST Magnus 375 18.4 9.5 1.8
THUNDERBEAST MAGNUS-CB 16.76 9 1.8
THUNDERBEAST ULTRA 5 8.03 5.015 1.45
THUNDERBEAST ULTRA 7 10.06 7.01 1.45
THUNDERBEAST ULTRA 9 11.96 9.01 1.45
YHM FAT CAT 14.44 4.533 1.94
YHM Fat Cat on Phantom 19.69 5.57 1.94
YHM R9 DIRECT THREAD 10.78 5.477 1.565
YHM R9 W/PHANTOM QD 16.03 6.515 1.565
YHM RESONATOR K 16.1 6.182 1.565
YHM RESONATOR R2 19.86 8.28 1.565
YHM Resonator R2 Phantom 25.11 9.32 1.565
YHM TURBO K-RB 15.74 5.96 1.565
YHM TURBO T3 17.54 6.9 1.565

Download CSV file of above information

Note that these suppressors have all been fired, some extensively, so carbon residue may cause the measured weights to deviate from those published. In addition, "AS TESTED" means that in many cases this includes adapters and/or muzzle devices to allow them to connect to standard 5/8" barrel threasd (or other thread pitch as host-appropriate). For example, suppressors that were not direct thread had the appropriate mounts/adapters added before measurements. In the case of really nonstandard mounting setups or weird attachments used, they were documented in the suppressor name column.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

What about supersonic crack? Was that included or excluded?

Supersonic crack (also known as the N-Wave) was not excluded in this analysis. Other than the windowing described in the "Experimental Setup and Procedure" section, no parts of the waveform were excluded. If you want to see what it looks like when the Peak Pressure of the run is the SS crack, look at the plot for "Magnus CB .30 on .308", For Shot 1, just after 0.05 is a peak just under 190 Pa. That is the SS crack. The second highest peak at approx 0.057 is the peak from the muzzle discharge. The following suppressors in the ".30 on .308" category have reported Peak Pressures that are due to the SS crack (or the SS crack is about equal to the discharge peak): Hydrogen L, Magnus, Nomad LT, Jolene. In this dataset, suppressors shot on 5.56 will never have their peak less than the SS crack because the action noise ("port pop") on the MK18 dominates.

Here are two waveforms, from the Magnus CB and the Nomad LT, where the N-wave crack dominates the peak pressure measurements with the parts of the waveform labeled:



Why didn't you calculate any exposure metrics or damage risk criterions (DRC)?

There are two principal reasons and one ancillary reason why:
(1) As anyone who has fired a firearm - even suppressed - inside a building or right next to a wall knows, the proximity of hard surfaces to the firearm makes a huge difference in perceived loudness and, presumably, hearing damage incurred. Shooting inside a building is a louder experience than shooting outside in the middle of a field because of all the reflections that come back. Thus, exposure risk calculations that span from steady-state before to steady-state after the gunshot are extremely dependent upon the local physical environment. A metric taken in the middle of an open field, or even better, one taken while suspended 20' off the ground (to prevent the ground reflections), would literally only be valid as a damage risk criterion in the exact same setup. Shooting under a roof at a local range, shooting from next to a wall, or shooting inside a building or hallway or vehicle, would have a vastly different damage result.
(2) There is significant disagreement and/or discussion in the academic literature about the validity of various DRCs and with respect to their applicability to gunshots, see these papers as a start: Flamme Murphy 2022 Impulsive noise DRC relationships and knowledge gaps;     Acoustic reflexes are common but not pervasive evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 2012;     Deiters et al MEMC generalizability 2019 JASMAN_vol_146_iss_5_3993_1;     Flamme Deiters Tasko Jones 2021 Pervasiveness of early MEMC 2021-05;     Flamme Deiters Tasko Susceptibility to impulsive noise ASA December 2020;     Greene et al (2017) Stapes displacement and intracochlear pressure in response to very high level, low frequency sound ... ;     Impulse noise injury prediction based on the cochlear energy Zagadou Chan 2016 Hear ...;     Murphy-An Analysis of the Blast-NIOSH EPHB Report No 309;     Reflexes common not pervasive McGregor et al;     Tasko et al 2022 effects of unilateral eye closure on middle ear muscle contractions
(3) Given #1 and #2, it would be irresponsible to publish a metric that implies "safety" when actual damage is not known and cannot be guaranteed


What's the deal with ground reflections and ground composition?

Per the discussion around Figure 5, the reflectively of the ground depends on its material and composition. In that figure, from about 0.06 to about 0.067 seconds, the Leq value of the Outside waveform is higher. This is because the compacted dirt from the outside test location reflects more sound energy than the loose sand of the indoor test location. Due to the longer time it takes the "blast" to exit the suppressor (the very clear step in Figure 5), in the suppressed case, the ground reflection is now in the time window where the peak Leq is happening, so it contributes to the peak Leq, for example, Figure 8 at approx 0.0642 sec. The same logic applies to the Impulse plots. This means that for suppressed gunshots measured with this physical setup of firearm and microphones, ground reflection contributes to the peak Leq and Impulse. As a result, the same exact floor, or a floor with the exact same sound reflectivity, would be needed to reproduce the same Impulse and Leq values at another location. Note that this limitation would also apply to any damage risk criterion (DRC) or exposure metric.


Why are some of the 5.56 host numbers so much higher than the .30 cal numbers?

or

What about gas gun port pop on the 5.56?

Using one high-volume TBAC can as an example, the Magnus when shot on .308 has numbers @ SE of 110.30 Leq(10ms) dBA (average) on the bolt-action .308 but on the DD MK18 5.56 gas gun, it has 127.76 Leq(10ms) dBA (average). So the Leq value is a lot higher on the 5.56. This relationship of the 5.56 host numbers being much louder than the .308 numbers, for the SE and 225 positions, especially when looking at the Impulse and Leq numbers happens because of port pop, that is, gas pressure escaping from the breech and/or gas system and/or the action noise. (The ML mic position is not as affected by this due to its distance to the muzzle compared to its distance from the action noise.) The port pop can be distinguished from the muzzle report easily in this example:


Now that you've seen how they differ in time, here is an example how that action noise contributes to the peak Leq value, using the Magnus on 5.56 vs. the Magnus on 308:
Magnus shot on MK18 5.56, peak Leq 127.03 (shot 1)


Magnus shot on bolt .308, peak Leq 111.94 (shot 1)


Why didn't you test on my favorite setup, which is ________? Nobody shoots .308 anymore!

As you can tell from the table, when testing gun, cartridge, and suppressor combinations, the number of tests gets big fast. We tested primarily .308 from a bolt gun and 5.56 from a MK18 to use a common standardized setup for each suppressor to limit the total number of tests to something we could get done in 3 days while everyone was on-site. Another goal was to have as much data as directly-comparable as possible.


Some of these only have 4 shots -- why?

On a few tests, we did not realize that one of the shots didn't trigger correctly until we started post-analysis. Instead of throwing out those tests, we just ran the averages with the 4 shots and then annotated the number of shots in a column of the data.


GNU Octave Analysis Code

adsgn.m

function [B,A] = adsgn(Fs);
% ADSGN  Design of a A-weighting filter.
%    [B,A] = ADSGN(Fs) designs a digital A-weighting filter for
%    sampling frequency Fs. Usage: Y = FILTER(B,A,X).
%    Warning: Fs should normally be higher than 20 kHz. For example,
%    Fs = 48000 yields a class 1-compliant filter.
%
%    Requires the Signal Processing Toolbox.
%
%    See also ASPEC, CDSGN, CSPEC.

% Author: Christophe Couvreur, Faculte Polytechnique de Mons (Belgium)
%         couvreur@thor.fpms.ac.be
% Last modification: Aug. 20, 1997, 10:00am.

% References:
%    [1] IEC/CD 1672: Electroacoustics-Sound Level Meters, Nov. 1996.

pkg load signal

% Definition of analog A-weighting filter according to IEC/CD 1672.
f1 = 20.598997;
f2 = 107.65265;
f3 = 737.86223;
f4 = 12194.217;
A1000 = 1.9997;
pi = 3.14159265358979;
NUMs = [ (2*pi*f4)^2*(10^(A1000/20)) 0 0 0 0 ];
DENs = conv([1 +4*pi*f4 (2*pi*f4)^2],[1 +4*pi*f1 (2*pi*f1)^2]);
DENs = conv(conv(DENs,[1 2*pi*f3]),[1 2*pi*f2]);

% Use the bilinear transformation to get the digital filter.
[B,A] = bilinear(NUMs,DENs,1/Fs);

download link

Leq_fast.m

function Leq=Leq_fast(sig,fs,tau,type)

%function Leq=Leq_fast(sig,fs,tau,type)
%Computes running rms-average of signal sig, sampled with sample rate sr
%tau is the integration time in seconds
%Default value for tau is 125 ms
%Kernel is either exponential decay (default, and type ='exponetial', or
%rectangular (type = 'rectangular')
%output is an array of the same size as the input.

%Aarhus University, Jakob Tougaard and Kristian Beedholm, Jan. 2018
%jat@bios.au.dk
%Shared under Creative Commons license CC BY-SA 4.0 (share alike)


%10x tau before impulse to start at 0

if size(sig,1)==1    %Flip input if horizontal array
    sig=sig';
    horizontal=true;
else
    horizontal=false;
end

if nargin<3
    tau=0.125;  %default value 125 ms
end

if nargin<4    %default type is exponential
    type='e';
end

L=floor(fs*tau);    %Time constant in samples
if type(1)=='r'     %rectangular kernel
    if L>length(sig)
        error('Signal must be longer than tau')
    else
        w=[ones(L,1);zeros(length(sig)-L,1)];
    end
else                %exponential kernel
    if L*5>length(sig)
        error('Signal must be longer than five times tau')
    else
        w=exp(-(0:length(sig)-1)/(tau*fs))';
    end
end

%convolution)
Leq=real(sqrt((ifft(fft(sig.^2).*fft(w)))/L));

if horizontal   %flip output back to horizontal if input is a horizontal array
    Leq=Leq';
end


download link

process_string.m

% -*- octave -*-
% (C) COPYRIGHT 2023 THUNDER BEAST ARMS CORP ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
function [pass] = process_string(Num_Shots,fn, mic_name, mfgr_name, can_name, run_name, cal_name, cart_name)

% You will need the following packages installed to run this: octave octave-signal
%   e.g. apt-get install octave octave-signal
%

% PARAMETERS:
% Num_Shots  number of shots in this string
% fn         input filename for this run, e.g. "Shot 1/Time Group_Expanded Time(Mil Left) - Input.dat'
% mic_name   microphone name, e.g. SE, ML, 225
% mfgr_name  manufacturer name for reporting
% can_name   suppressor name for reporting
% run_name   "run name" or "series name", e.g. Day3
% cal_name   caliber of suppressor
% cart_name  cartridge name (or cartridge+gun identifier)
% 
% run from base directory that contains the "Shot [0-9]" directories
% for example,
% octave -p "/path/to/dot-m-files" --no-gui -H --eval "process_string(5, \"Time Group_Expanded Time(225 Deg ASA) - Input.dat\", \"225\", \"Aero Precision\", \"Lahar-30K\", \"Day3\", \".30\", \"5.56\")"
%
% where /path/to/dot-n-files is where you put this file, adsgn.m, and Leq_fast.m
%
% Before you run this, you will need to take all the "Time Group_Expanded Time*.txt" files and trim all the text out of the 
% header and footer, just leaving the raw numerical data.  E.g. remove everything up to but not including
%    1         0.0000000000e+00        5.59023e-03
% and everthing after the last numerical line (typically something like "131072    4.9999618981e-01  8.42261e-01")
%  starting with TagsBegin: to the end of the file.
%  For each corresponding .txt file, create a .dat file that is truncated as described above.
%
  

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%Edit these only

Time_Start=.001;
Time_Stop=.125;


Leq_Width=.025;%How long after shot starts to measure
Peak_STOP=.075;%end of peak window, time after shot


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%End edit area
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

P_0=20*10^-6; %Absolute Pressure in Pa
FS=262144; %Sample rate
Tau=.010; %Leq time step
Leq_Width=Leq_Width*1000; %Get rid of ms

[B, A]=adsgn(FS); %Get filter parameters

ofb=sprintf("Results_%s.txt", mic_name);
file_id=fopen(ofb,'w');

Peak_Sum=0;
Imp_Sum=0;
A_Peak_Sum=0;
A_Leq_Peak_Sum=0;


Shot=1;

fprintf(file_id, "SERIES: %s\n", run_name);
fprintf(file_id, "CAN: %s %s (%s on %s)\n", mfgr_name, can_name, cal_name, cart_name);
fprintf(file_id, "MIC: %s\n", mic_name);
fprintf(file_id, "NUMBER OF SHOTS: %d\n", Num_Shots);

fprintf(file_id, 'Sample rate 262144 Hz \n');
fprintf(file_id, 'Start Time %.3f s, End Time %.3f s \n', Time_Start, Time_Stop);
fprintf(file_id, 'Peak Leq(10ms) window width of %.1f ms \n\n', Leq_Width);


while Shot<(Num_Shots+1)
%Read in data
  filename = sprintf('Shot %i/%s',Shot, fn);
  filename_leq = sprintf('Shot %i/%s.leq',Shot, fn);
  filename_imp = sprintf('Shot %i/%s.imp',Shot, fn);
  M=load("-ascii",filename);


  X1=M(1:75000,2:2);
  T_Start=round(Time_Start/X1(2));
  T_Stop=round(Time_Stop/X1(2));

%Parse down the string to analysis window
  X=M(T_Start:T_Stop,2:2);
  Y=M(T_Start:T_Stop,3:3);

  X=X*1000; %convert times to msec
  X_50=round(.05*FS);
  DT=X(2)-X(1); %Find time step


Q=cumtrapz(X,Y); %Integrate pressure curve
  Peak_Stop_ROW=round(Peak_STOP*FS);%Initial window convert from sec to row number
  [Min_Q, Imp_Stop_ROW2]=min(Q(1:Peak_Stop_ROW)); %Find min impulse and set impulse window


  [Max_Q, X_of_Max_Q]=max(Q(1:Imp_Stop_ROW2)); %Find max impulse using the dynamic window
  T_Max_Q=X(X_of_Max_Q); %Find time of max impulse
  dB_Max_Q=20*log10(Max_Q/P_0); %Convert max impulse from Pa-msec to dB-msec

  Y_A = filter(B,A,Y); %Apply A weight filter to raw data
  [Max_Y_A, X_of_Y_A_Max]=max(Y_A(1:Peak_Stop_ROW)); %Find peak A-weighted within window

  Y_A_dB_Max=20*log10(Max_Y_A/P_0); %Convert Peak A-weighted from Pa to dB
  T_Y_A_Max=X(X_of_Y_A_Max); %Find time of peak A-weighted

  Leq_Start_ROW=find(Y>1.);%finds everytime relative Pressure is positive
  Leq_Start1_ROW=Leq_Start_ROW(1); %Finds the first time relative Pressure is positive
  Leq_Stop_ROW=Leq_Start1_ROW+(round(Leq_Width*FS/1000)); %Set LEQ analysis window
  Leq_Start_T=X(Leq_Start1_ROW); %Converts from Row to time
  Leq_Stop_T=Leq_Start_T+Leq_Width; %Defines the end of the window in time

  Leq_A_Y=Leq_fast(Y_A,FS,Tau,'rectangular'); %Calculates LEQ

  Leq_AdB_Y = 20*log10(abs(Leq_A_Y)/P_0); %Converts LEQ to dB
  LEQOUT = [ X(Leq_Start1_ROW:end)/1000 Leq_AdB_Y(Leq_Start1_ROW:end) ]; % converts back to seconds for consistency
  save("-ascii", filename_leq, "LEQOUT" );

  IMPOUT = [ X(1:end)/1000 Q(1:end) ]; % converts back to seconds for consistency
  save("-ascii", filename_imp, "IMPOUT" );

  Leq_Max_Pa=max(Leq_A_Y(Leq_Start1_ROW:Leq_Stop_ROW)); %Finds max LEQ

  [Leq_MaxdB, Leq_Max_ROW]=max(Leq_AdB_Y(Leq_Start1_ROW:Leq_Stop_ROW)); %Finds the Row position of max LEQ
  Leq_Max_ROW=Leq_Max_ROW+Leq_Start1_ROW;
  Leq_Max_T=X(Leq_Max_ROW); %Converts position of max LEQ to time

  [Max_Y, Y_Max_ROW]=max(Y(1:Peak_Stop_ROW)); %Finds peak pressure
  dB_Max_Y=20*log10(Max_Y/P_0); %Converts peak to dB
  Y_Max_T=X(Y_Max_ROW); %Finds time of peak dB

  fprintf(file_id, "Shot %d\n", Shot);
  fprintf(file_id, 'Peak of gas flow at %.2f Pa (%.2f dB) at t=%.2f ms \n', Max_Y, dB_Max_Y, Y_Max_T);
  fprintf(file_id, 'Peak impulse of %.2f Pa*ms (%.2f dB*ms) at t=%.2f ms \n', Max_Q, dB_Max_Q, T_Max_Q);
  fprintf(file_id, 'Peak A-Weighted dB of %.2f dB at t=%.2f ms\n',Y_A_dB_Max, T_Y_A_Max);
  fprintf(file_id, 'Peak A-Weighted Leq of %.2f dB at t=%.2f ms\n', Leq_MaxdB, Leq_Max_T);
  fprintf(file_id, 'Leq window of  %.2f ms to %.2f ms\n', Leq_Start_T, Leq_Stop_T);
  fprintf(file_id, "\n\n");

  Peak_Sum=Peak_Sum+Max_Y;
  Imp_Sum=Imp_Sum+Max_Q;
  A_Peak_Sum=A_Peak_Sum+Max_Y_A;
  A_Leq_Peak_Sum=A_Leq_Peak_Sum+Leq_Max_Pa;

  Shot=Shot+1;
end


%Calculates and outputs averages
Peak_Avg=Peak_Sum/Num_Shots;
Peak_Avg_dB=20*log10(Peak_Avg/P_0);
Imp_Avg=Imp_Sum/Num_Shots;
Imp_Avg_dB=20*log10(Imp_Avg/P_0);
A_Peak_Avg_dB=20*log10((A_Peak_Sum/Num_Shots)/P_0);
A_Leq_Peak_Avg_dB=20*log10((A_Leq_Peak_Sum/Num_Shots)/P_0);

fprintf(file_id, "\n");
fprintf(file_id, "SUMMARY---\n");
fprintf(file_id, 'Peak of gas flow at %.2f Pa (%.2f dB)  \n', Peak_Avg, Peak_Avg_dB);
fprintf(file_id, 'Peak impulse of %.2f Pa*ms (%.2f dB*ms)  \n', Imp_Avg, Imp_Avg_dB);
fprintf(file_id, 'Peak A Weighted Average of %.2f dB \n', A_Peak_Avg_dB);
fprintf(file_id, 'Peak A Weighted Leq Average of %.2f dB \n', A_Leq_Peak_Avg_dB);

fprintf(file_id, "\n\n\n");
fprintf(file_id, "PEAK_UNWEIGHTED_PA: %.2f Pa\n",Peak_Avg);
fprintf(file_id, "PEAK_UNWEIGHTED_DB: %.2f dB\n",Peak_Avg_dB);
fprintf(file_id, "PEAK_A_WEIGHTED_DB: %.2f dB(A)\n",A_Peak_Avg_dB);

fprintf(file_id, "PEAK_IMPULSE_UNWEIGHTED_PAMS: %.2f Pa*ms\n",Imp_Avg);
fprintf(file_id, "PEAK_IMPULSE_UNWEIGHTED_DB: %.2f dB*ms\n",Imp_Avg_dB);

fprintf(file_id, "PEAK_LEQ_10MS_A_WEIGHTED_DB: %.2f dB\n",A_Leq_Peak_Avg_dB);




fclose('all');


endfunction


% end


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COPYRIGHT Notes

This document and its presentation, along with the linked graphs, are © COPYRIGHT 2023 THUNDER BEAST ARMS CORPORATION (TBAC), ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, and may not be reproduced without written permission from TBAC.

The raw data itself, that is, the numbers in the above tables, the CSV file, and PULSE-generated waveform file (".txt") are available for anyone to use, provided that the data is footnoted to have come from the 2023 SILENCER SUMMIT.


^